Condicionales en inglés con ejemplos definitivos

¿Qué es un Condicional?

Los condicionales en inglés se basan principalmente en la palabra “if”. Hay siempre dos partes de una frase condicional: la primera parte con el “if” que describe una posible situación y la segunda parte que describe la consecuencia. Ejemplos:

If it rains, we’ll get wet.

También podemos invertir las dos partes de un condicional y que la parte de “if” aparezca en segunda posición. Esto es común en preguntas.

  • What will you do if you miss the train?
  • How can you finish the project if you don’t have a computer?
  • What happens if the students don’t pass an exam?

 

Existen cuatro tipos de condicionales:

0 – The zero conditional

1 – The first conditional

2 – The second conditional

3 – The third conditional

También es posible mezclar el segundo y tercer condicional. Ahora os mostraremos todos los condicionales en inglés con sus 12 ejemplos definitivos.

 

The Zero Conditional

We use the zero conditional to talk about permanent truths, such as scientific facts, and general habits. The structure is simple:

If + present simple present simple
50% possibility 100% certainty

 

Here are some examples:

  • If you heat water to 100°, it boils.
  • If you eat a lot, you put on weight.
  • If it doesn’t rain for a long time, the earth gets very dry.
  • If we go out with friends, we normally go to a restaurant.
  • If I’m tired, I go to bed early.

 

The First Conditional

We use the first conditional to talk about a realistic situation in the present or future. The structure of the first conditional is as follows:

If + present simple will + verb
can + verb
must + verb
imperative form
50% possibility 100% certainty

 

Here are some examples:

  • If you’re free later, we can go for a walk.
  • If they’re hungry, I’ll make some sandwiches.
  • If you’re not back by 5pm, give me a ring.
  • If he studies hard, he’ll do well in the exam.
  • If we arrive late, we must get a taxi.
  • He’ll call if he needs help.
  • Take a break if you’re tired.

 

Another way to make first conditional sentences is to use ‘unless’ which means ‘only if’ or ‘except’. As with ‘if’, the word ‘unless’ can never be followed by ‘will’ but only by the present simple.

  • Unless you hurry up, you won’t catch the bus.
  • I’ll carry on doing this work, unless my boss tells me to do something else.
  • We’ll stay at home unless the weather improves.

 

The Second Conditional

We use the second conditional to talk about improbable or impossible situations in the present or future. Here is the structure:

If + past simple would + verb

could + verb

0-5% possibility 100% certainty

 

For example:

  • If I had more time, I’d exercise more. (But I don’t have more time so I don’t.)
  • If I were rich, I’d spend all my time travelling. (But I’m not rich so I can’t.)
  • If she saw a snake, she’d be terrified.
  • If he didn’t have to work late, he could go out with his girlfriend.
  • What would you do if you were offered a job in Canada?
  • You wouldn’t have to walk everywhere if you bought a bike.

A common expression used to give advice has the second conditional structure. The expression is ‘If I were you, I’d..’, meaning ‘in your situation, this is what I would do’. For example:

A: I’ve got a headache.

B: If I were you, I’d take an aspirin.

A: I don’t understand this.

B: If I were you, I’d ask your teacher for help.

A: This order won’t be delivered on time.

B: If I were you, I’d phone the customer to let them know.

 

The Third Conditional

We use the third conditional to talk about impossible situations, as in the second conditional, in the past. We often use the third conditional to describe regrets. The structure is:

 

If + past perfect would have + past participle

could have + past participle

0% possibility 100% certainty

 

Here are some examples:

  • If we had left earlier, we would have arrived on time.
  • If you hadn’t forgotten her birthday, she wouldn’t have been upset.
  • If they had booked earlier, they could have found better seats.
  • If I hadn’t learnt English, I wouldn’t have got this job.
  • What would you have studied if you hadn’t done engineering?
  • They wouldn’t have hired you if you hadn’t had some experience abroad.
  • You could have helped me if you’d stayed later.

Mixed Conditionals

It’s possible to combine the second and third conditional in one sentence when we want to make a hypothesis about the past that has a consequence in the present. In this case, the structure is:

 

If + past perfect would + verb

could + verb

0% possibility 100% certainty

 

Here are some examples:

  • If you’d studied harder, you’d be at a higher level now.
  • We’d be lying on a beach now if we hadn’t missed the plane.
  • They’d have much more confidence if they hadn’t lost so many matches.
  • What would you be doing now if you hadn’t decided to study?

 

Ahora que ya tienes la explicación de cada uno de los condicionales en inglés, ya puedes ponerlos en práctica. Si necesitas ayuda extra para seguir mejorando tu nivel de inglés, nuestros profesores nativos estarán encantados de ayudarte.